Biological characteristic
Highbush blueberry – is a long-term, long-lived, deciduous, woody shrub.

    The root system is fibrous, densely branched, located in the upper soil layer and has no root hairs. Most of the roots located in the zone around the bush in the soil layer depth of 40 cm in vivo growth of a plant powered by endotrophic mycorrhiza - fungi, which live together with the roots (symbiosis). Roots start growing in spring when the soil temperature reaches 5 ° C, which often coincides with swelling buds. The root grows up to the end of spring, and then the growth stops. In autumn, root growth is resumed, and it occurs in the period from harvest to leaf fall, until the temperature drops to 5°С.

    Stems tall blueberry with slightly ribbed, shiny or matte. Their color varies from bright green to light brown. Stems branching 9,5-9,9 cm in length, and the formation of shoots during the growing season reached a length of 80 to 115cm. New shoots develop on the old in the early spring. They are very strong and often revive dead shoots for blueberry production in subsequent years. Vegetative growth begins in spring with bud swelling. In the first period of growth shoots grow very quickly, then stops and terminal buds remain undeveloped. After 1-2 weeks of apical bud continues to grow. During the season shoots may have from one to several waves of growth.

    In mid-summer, a few buds on the end of the new shoots are formed in the flowering to harvest next year. Formation starts from the shoot apex and extends downward. Flower buds of a spherical shape, much larger growth, the amount does not exceed four. Generally, flowering is always an apical bud and one or three sides, each of which contains from 5 to 10 potential flowers. Growth buds are small, oblong, pointed, located along the entire length of shoots in the leaf axils.

    Highbush blueberry leaves are large, dark green, smooth, shiny, fitting, short-petiolate, entire or toothed. Leaf blade elliptic or oval. Its length can reach 8 cm, width - 4 cm.

     Blueberry blossoms in May. .Racemes are located at the ends of the shoots. Terminal clusters of opened earlier than the side. Flower campanulate, with 4-5 recurved teeth, white or slightly pinkish. On average, in racemes of 8-10 flowers. After flowering and fruit formation of some brush at the ends of the shoots appear as one large cluster (this is especially characteristic for the variety Blueray). It turns out false brush, which has up to 24 berries.

    Fruit - berry with numerous seeds, which is required for the development of 2 to 3 months. Dimensions berries vary considerably depending on the varietal characteristics and the situation in hand. The size of berries increases not only prior to maturity, but after the acquisition of the blue color, mainly owing to the absorption of water. Drought in the ripening period reduces the size of fruit and a worsening of their taste. Therefore, during the formation and ripening of berries is very important watering. Colouring of fruit light blue, light blue or dark blue, with a bluish tinge. In form they are rounded, sometimes pentahedral, flattened. Flesh is white berries, thick or medium density. Peel and heavy or medium density. In ripe fruit cup remains.

     Taste berries basically sweet and sour, sometimes sweet. Accumulation of sugars during ripening increases sweetness berries. In the same period in the berries break down acid, decreased sour taste. The taste of the fruit increases during ripening, but not after it, as after ripening the sugar content in berries does not increase. Many varieties of fruit have a very good strong scent, in some varieties it is weak, and some not at all. The quality of fruit depends on its degree of maturation. Changes in the cell during maturation lead to softening of the berries. This softening of the berries taste better, but at the same time increases the possibility of physical damage.



© 2010
  Создание сайтов Полюс Альфа