Ecological growth factors
Environment (soil).

Growth of blueberries on poor soils along the margins of bogs and the ability to form under such conditions yield, secured her reputation as plants, undemanding to soil fertility. The presence of peat or humus layer to grow blueberries is not required, and it grows in the sand. In addition, often, many of the nutrients found in soil in the forms difficult to digest plants. In this case, helps mycorrhiza by which these substances are converted into forms available for uptake. But mycorrhizae works only under acidic conditions. Therefore, blueberry is found only in very acid soil. Optimum pH of the soil for it is in the pH range 3,4-4,8 units.

In the wild blueberry growing tall along the edges of marshes and wetlands in the open glades, as well as micro-elevations the marshes, ie where there is stagnant water. Experience of growing tall upland peat bog blueberry on also suggests that it does not tolerate stagnant water. Landings in case of flooding during the growing season for a few days the plants die. On sandy, easily permeable to water soils, plants, blueberries suffer from lack of moisture, if within a few days in a row is hot sunny weather. With more prolonged drought (two weeks or more) of the plant dry out.

Best blueberry grows and bears fruit in soil moisture content of 60-70% of the full field capacity. This is a typical requirement for most mesophytic plants that are adapted to the conditions of moderate humidity. These include almost all vegetable crops.

Availability in the soil air containing oxygen, is a very important condition. Plants require oxygen not less than water. In the absence of oxygen in the water are killed even common aquatic plants. In the soil, where the common root system, should always be the saturation of gas exchange and root layer of oxygen. For most plants, the norm is the air content in the soil in the range of 15-20% of its volume.

Excess moisture in the soil leads to the displacement of air from it, without which disrupted vital functions of plants. In the roots of the accumulation of products of metabolism and toxicity of plants, that at the end leads to death. The optimal phase relationship for the water-air interface is formed by blueberries in soil moisture 70% of the full field capacity.

When growing any crop thermal resources area, which include heat supply and growing season should ensure ripening berries. Varietal tall blueberry more thermophilic than our local species - blueberry swamp. In recent years the Earth's climate has changed significantly and in Eastern Europe marked warming. In particular, the growing season in northern regions of Ukraine and Russia lengthened by 13 days and it is possible to grow some crops, the harvest from that previously could only be obtained under the film.

Blueberry is characterized by lower winter hardiness compared with blueberry swamp. In North America, some varieties of freeze slightly at -20 ° C--25 ° C. However, it turned out that they have a fairly wide range of hardiness. In spring, buds, flowers, and ovaries tall blueberry frozen without damage transferred to -6,5 ° C, which cannot to do most our horticultural crops.

Highbush blueberry photophilous plant. The slight decrease of illumination results in a decrease in yield, as well as reduce the number of flower buds are placed in the current year. This, in turn, leads to a decrease in harvest next year. The high level of illumination of plants in late April - early May ( at the beginning of the growing season) provides a high level of photosynthetic capacity. As a result, the bushes grow intensively, developing buds, flowers and young ovary. In June, July and August, due to this, there is an intensive favorite flower buds harvest next year, as well as the formation and maturation of the crop this year. Number of hours of sunshine cannot be changed, but by putting a blueberry planting in well-lit area can increase the light level plants. In addition, you can increase the light by the reflected light, which receives the lower part of the leaves. For this planting blueberry mulch and destroy the weeds between the rows. This increases the photosynthetic activity of leaves and the result is a substantial increase in yield.



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