After planting permanent roots support complex range of moist, preventing drying. The optimum moisture content of the substrate - 60-70% of the full field capacity. This is achieved by a regulation of the water table, or watering. For young plants GWL support at around 30 cm from the soil surface for adult shrubs - at around 50 cm
Watering is carried out either by atomized spraying or by using drip irrigation of the soil around the bush. In the latter case using a special system of perforated pipes. Particularly important is the abundant watering during July and August. During this period, blueberry fruit on the bushes and at the same time lays the flower buds that form the crop next year. With a lack of moisture during this period will not only yield losses in the current, but in the next year.
The need for additional irrigation area is defined as the soil. By eye to determine the moisture content of the upper horizon of taking a handful of earth. Then you need to compress it and see how a ball, and how it is durable. If sandy soils are not formed into a ball, although it seems that it is moist, watering is needed. On loam soils need watering when the soil is rolled into a ball, but without any pressure is falling apart. Peat soil is moist enough, if you compress a ball crumbles easily. At their summer cottage desirable shrubs watered at least twice a week (one bucket of water on the adult bush). In hot dry weather, it is desirable to water more often (you can even every day), in the cool and rainy you should stop watering.
In hot dry weather is desirable not only to water shrubs and spray them to cool. Conduct this event during the peak of high temperatures (in 12-13 hours and 15-16 hours). This significantly increases the productivity of shrubs (by spraying eliminated the stress of heat and increases the rate of photosynthesis).
This is a very important farming practice, with which you can solve a number of issues that arise during the growth of plants.
When cultivating blueberries important to monitor the moisture in the topsoil. This can be achieved in two ways: regular watering with loosening of the upper layer (which should be done very carefully and often), or mulching. Mulch planting can be straw, rot leaves, needles, and best of all sawdust or bark. . Recommended mulch layer material 2 - 15 cm.
Mulching helps to get rid of weeds and creates optimal conditions for the accumulation of moisture and organic matter. Weeding after mulch mowing weeds can be reduced to between rows.
The veil of mulch helps small delay bud break in spring and less intensive defoliation in the fall. This will help to cope with blueberries as fluctuations in the winter and spring temperatures. This process has a positive effect on shoot growth rate and uniformity of ripening the wood and contribute to the timely preparation of the processes of shoots and buds in winter. The result - a endure winter shrubs with minimal damage.
If you mulch the soil surface treatment is necessary to pay attention to the possible invasion of field mice and rodents, as the last in a ground feel particularly good, and can cause great harm, gnaw through and undermining the roots.
The ability to grow blueberries and harvest in the form of scarce conditions for the existence suggests that it is undemanding to soil fertility and does not need much fertilizer. Weight and composition of fertilizers determined by the peculiarities of the soil at each site. On the deficiency or excess of a battery can be judged on a number of typical outward signs, which are easily found during the inspection of landings.
Nitrogen. Healthy plant blueberries are relatively large, the same dark-green leaves and strong growth. With nitrogen deficit initially slowed the growth of shoots, then the old leaves become yellowish-green tint. With a significant deficit of the entire plant is yellow-green leaves and then takes on a reddish hue, growth slows and the yield and berry size are sharply reduced. Young shoots that grow on a nitrogen deficiency, have a distinct pink color, and after the cessation of growth are pale green.
Excess nitrogen causes the active growth of the shoots, which lasts until late autumn. This leads to the frosting in the winter.
Phosphorous.Deficiency of phosphorus is shown in purple and green color of the tops of the leaves and dark purple color at their base. All the leaves become purple hue and a leathery texture. The degree of symptoms depends on the light bush: under the bright sunlight, the purple color is clearly visible, and in shading or cloud it may disappear. The leaves are closely pressed to the stem (located at an acute angle to it, not a right as usual).
Potassium. Potassium deficiency manifests death of the tops of the leaves, then there are necrotic spots on the middle and edges of the sheet. With the increasing shortage of leaf edges warp. On young leaves from time to time are yellowing between the veins. Having grown sprouts die off, while clearly distinguished black tip. At times there is a strong growth of shoots branching from lateral buds, which after some time and die.
Calcium. Bright no symptoms. The most elementary are warping leaves with yellowed edges. On the apical leaves arises light yellow-green mottling and yellowing edges. From time to time, they form a rosette. The top sheet may buckle and fall off.
Magnesium. Deficiency is easily recognized by its bright red edges of older leaves. Red paint on the edges and between the veins is in strong contrast with the green, which prevails in the center of the sheet near the midrib (like a Christmas tree). Under intense sunlight revealed necrotic spots, and instead of the red color appear yellow or brown.
Bor. Boron deficiency is indicated by a blue coloration of upper leaves, abruptly ceasing growth. Then, on the older leaves found a slight yellowing between the veins, and the young - yellow dots. The leaves are bent. Shoots stop growing and die. At times death shoots leads to the formation of "witches' brooms" (start to grow shoots from the lower buds, and then also die).
Iron. To indicate iron deficiency yellowing of veins near the young upper leaves. With the growth deficiency symptoms in the form of a network of green veins on a background of lemon colored leaf on the tips of the shoots. Iron deficiency is extremely negative impact on growth and fruiting plants.
Manganese. As iron deficiency appears on young leaves as a yellowing between the veins. The difference is that the green color near the stem has a greater margin. With increasing scarcity faded areas on the edges of the sheet die. There are necrotic points on an entire sheet, which the growth of deficits and merge leaf dies.
Zinc. Zinc deficiency is also manifested in yellowing of young leaves, with the entire leaf becomes lemon-yellow. The leaves do not grow to become small and narrow, form rosettes, as has been decreasing internode.
Sulphur. Signs of deficiency are chlorotic spots on the leaves, and acute shortages - a yellowish-white color of the leaves. In severe cases leaves become whitish-pink, or white. The lack of sulfur in the soil increases the pH and the degradation of mycorrhiza. Recommended to apply to soils with a pH of 5.0 5 kg, and on soils with a pH of 6.0 - 10 kg of sulfur per 100 m ° for soil acidification. The use of sulfate forms of fertilizers - an additional source of sulfur.
Copper. Symptoms of copper deficiency are manifested primarily in the leaves. They are smaller, often curled up boat. Older leaves turn brown and die, dry up, the tops of the branches. Sometimes, because of the lateral and dormant buds sprout numerous small twigs - "Witch broom."
Molybdenum. Deficiency of molybdenum appears on young leaves of growing shoots in the form of chlorosis between the veins.
To determine how much fertilizer should be done to make agrochemical soil analysis. We recommend approximately 2 years taking soil samples and analyzed in the laboratory of soil science. Under unfavorable results you can discuss the tests with us and get recommendations for correcting the situation. The best time for application of mineral fertilizers - the beginning of spring, during the early sap flow or swelling of the buds. On soils with acidity higher than 4.8 in the form of fertilizer to make ammonium sulfate twice per season at intervals of 6-7 weeks at the rate of 100-115 g per 10 m ². On soils with optimum pH level is recommended to apply 90 g of ammonium sulfate, 40 g of potassium sulfate and 110 g superphosphate per adult bush blueberry. Organic fertilizers cannot be used, otherwise you can destroy the plant.
Low temperatures protection
Blueberry does not differ very high winter hardiness. Without any damage it can tolerate temperatures down to -23 ° - -25 ° (some varieties to -27 ° - -30 °, for example Earliblue). Therefore, in severe snowless winter frost is likely bushes.
On large plantations cover shrubs impossible, so here is reduced to the protection system of agrotechnical measures to ensure the completion of growth and maturation of a good wood for shoots. Bush on private land can tie the spruce branches or hide spanbond, foam, burlap, etc. (not plastic wrap). The bushes should not make high doses of nitrogen fertilizers, especially after flowering, so as not to cause thereby the growth of shoots in late autumn.
During the flowering blueberry can tolerate frosts to -7 ° without noticeable damage. Therefore, in the spring protection is needed very rarely. In the fall, during the ripening of berries, freezing can cause considerable damage late-maturing varieties. Green berries are damaged at -2 °. Therefore, the protection is needed at this time. For this purpose, suitable sprinkler or cover any materials at hand: spanbond, burlap, foil, etc.
Pruning - a very important and effective method to influence the growth and development of any plant, including blueberry. With this operation, you can pretty much change the quality and quantity of the crop, based on the needs of the manufacturer. Since the pruning treat potent agricultural practices, it should be clear and with a predetermined goal. Blueberry Pruning is best done in early spring until the buds have blossomed. In areas with mild winters or with significant snow cover, you can do this fall after leaves fall. Pruned material must be removed from the plantation and burned, to prevent all diseases overwinter in crop.
The purpose of trimming the young (2-4 years) plant is laying a solid, capable of safely withstanding the harvest skeletal bush. Therefore, removing growths at the base of the bush, as well as sick and lying on the ground branch.
Fruiting bushes (5 years) is cut differently. If you want to get a large berry - the bush is cut all the branches over 5 years. If size is important not berries, and harvest - leave shoots up to 6-7 years. In any case, must be removed from the bush of branches with flower buds, as well as sick or lying on the ground. Of annual shoots is desirable to leave the 5 most robust.
The degree of pruning depends on the intensity of the growth of shoots. If variety is prone to strong sprout (Rankokas variety), the pruning should be done more if there is no (sort of Stanley) - a weak one.
If you want to get the most out of the plantation that needs protection from the wind. Forest shelter belt will contribute to more rapid warming of the soil, as well as less evaporation. Thanks to the quiet air circulation, reduced friction sticks together, does not diminish breaking of pollinated flowers. Pollinated flowers (due to the optimum moisture content) will fall off much faster, giving the insect an opportunity to work on re-dissolve. In the absence of protection from the wind partially reduced harvest, as well as an unpleasant whitish coating on the berries, reducing the quality of the goods.
As the plants for windbreaks is better to use pine or alder. But using fir and birch for this purpose are not suitable - their roots lie shallow and eventually they become serious competitors of blueberries.
Blueberries are beginning to bloom in the third year, but if you have planted only one variety may be difficult to pollinate because this culture is partly self-pollination (this means that self-pollination reduces the number of crops, as well as its quality). In order to get a good harvest, we recommend you have on site a few varieties.
Lush berry clusters are formed only in the case of flowers, insects worked (best bees and bumblebees), fruits of pollinated flowers are not always small and thick-skinned. To 1 hectare plantation optimally placed 4.3 hive of bees. But for the bees need special conditions for breeding - cavity. They can be arranged in special boxes. A feature of bumblebees is that they are ready to work even on cold and rainy days, while the bees prefer dry and warm weather. But do not forget that the insects are not secure funds for weed control. Each use of plant protection products must first be discussed with the beekeepers.
The full support of blueberry water and nutrients is only possible in the absence of competition from weeds. This is especially important in the early years after planting bushes. Young, not firmly established plants cannot thrive under a lack of light, water and nutrients. In addition, moist, shady microclimate and promotes the germination of spores of pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, care must be taken to the bushes was not weed. The easiest way - weeding. But this is a very laborious process requiring considerable time and money.
The second commonly used method is to mulch. If you have a few bushes growing blueberries, you can sprinkle mulch material around the bush a radius of 0.5 m and a thickness of about 10 cm rows planted blueberry mulch strips width of 60-80 cm with sawdust, bark, straw, leaves and other material. Weeds between the rows destroyed in several ways. You can cultivate them periodically to a depth of no more than 3 cm between rows often lower seeded grasses, which are several times during the season mowing and leave in a row for rot though. In foreign practice, use the contact herbicide with a broad spectrum of action. Not recommended for use herbicides on young plantations, as the young, actively growing shoots of blueberries are very sensitive to them. If it is still necessary, then apply the herbicide with great caution, in calm weather and special nozzles.
Protection from disease and pests
It is well known that plants weakened by unfavorable environmental conditions are highly susceptible to defeat diseases and pests. Therefore, all the methods of farming, to ensure optimal growth and development greatly reduce the level of damage to the plant pathogens. Lack of competition for light, water and nutrients from weeds, promotes stronger plants and increased their resistance to disease. Optimal water supply can take stress conditions in plants in dry hot weather, addresses the conditions for the development of pathogens Phomopsis, gray mold, pests. Mulching not only reduces weeds, but also improves the water-air and thermal regime of the soil, helping to isolate pockets of infection of pathogenic organism’s death under a layer of mulch material. A balanced mineral nutrition for normal growth and development of shoots, their resistance to multiple diseases, the completion of growth and lignification in the optimum time and, consequently, successful overwintering and resistance to disease in the autumn and spring seasons. Yet to fully protect blueberries from disease only through technical measures cannot. You have to use pesticides, and for this you need to know the major diseases and pests, as well as the timing, dosage and methods of using drugs to deal with them.
The most widespread and harmful disease of blueberry is a cancer of the stem (called a mushroom Godronia cassandrae Peck). Initially, the shoots in the area of leaf scars appear small reddish spots, which are increasing in size, ring-bark and cause it to escape extinction. This is the same disease often leads to death of young plants. In order to combat the cancer stem not plant blueberries in areas with excessive moisture, introduce too high doses of nitrogen fertilizers. It is necessary to regularly trim the bushes and burn infected shoots. Good results give topsinom treatment (0.2% solution) or euparenom (0.2% solution), three spraying at intervals of 7 days before flowering, and three - after the harvest of berries.
Often found in blueberries drying branches, caused by the fungus Phomopsis vaccinii Shear. The tops of young shoots in length from 2-3 cm to 30-40 cm in dry and curl. Infection occurs through the upper, actively growing parts of the shoot, mushroom and then moved down on the stem and penetrate all organs of the plant. Damaged branches pruned and burned. Of chemical protection well, the same as in the case of cancer stem.
The gray rot (pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers.) Affects all parts of plants: branches, leaves, flowers, fruits, causing them to extinction. On the branches are spreading from top to bottom. Affected branch turns brown or red, then turns gray. The same symptoms occur on the flowers. The berries are damaged during storage. Overwinters on fallen leaves mushroom, berries, and diseased branches. Control measures are the same as in the previous two cases.
In addition to these, there are blueberries in monilioz fruits (berries causes mummification) fizalosporoz (the withering away of the branches), white leaf spot, a double leaf spot and others to be effective against these diseases are processing topsinom and euparenom. In the early spring and late fall take preventive treatment rovralom (0.1-0.2% solution concentrations).
Of viral and mycoplasmal diseases are found in blueberries dwarfism, filamentous branches, red circular spot, necrotic spotting, mosaic. In all cases, completely remove and burn diseased plants.
Pests on blueberries and noted there is little they do not cause serious damage. Blueberry plantations can harm Pine Moth caterpillars that eat leaves, leaf, feeding on buds and leaves, and then Entangling web of shoot tips, as well as aphids and scales. In addition, cause great harm to the birds eating the berries. And if against insect pests have effective ways to fight (from manual collection for detection of a few to the use of chemicals), then we can advise against bird netting to cover the bushes at the top or hang on the branches of an old tape, which shine their scares.
Harvesting and storing berries
Ripening berries blueberry strongly stretched in time and lasts for 1-1.5 months. Depending on the ripening variety that occurs in July and August or August-September. Early-maturing varieties of fruit from the 1st of July, medium - from the 2nd - 3rd of July, with late-decade of August 03/02. During the period of maturation of each class is held from 3 to 5 charges of berries. Gather the berries by hand when they are fully stained. Berry 1-st and 2-nd collect the largest, has a good marketable and sold fresh. Berry 05.03 fees finer and largely goes to recycling. The collected berries can be stored in a refrigerator at +2 ° C for 2-3 weeks. For longer storage, freeze berries blueberry. Shelf life of frozen berries was 18 months. At home, berry blueberries can be frozen in refrigerator. To do this, it is packed in plastic bags, sealed and placed in the freezer. To unfreeze a berry, it is placed under cold water. Thawed blueberries keep its shape and taste for a few hours.
Usage in landscaping
Blueberries are not only useful food, medicine, and highly ornamental. Her bush looks great in single and group plantings in different containers on the veranda, porch, arbors and other structures. Of the Dove, you can create hedges, as well as low and medium height, borders.
Blueberry bushes, depending on the varietal characteristics, have a height of 0.6 m to 2.5 m and above. The plant is deciduous, so in winter ornamental value are beautifully painted and delicate branches of the original shape of the shrub. Looks wonderful blueberries in May, during flowering, when the bushes covered with bunch of white or pink-snow-white bell-shaped flowers. Originally looking bushes in the summer, during fruiting, thanks bunches of large soft blue berries and big, shiny, dark green foliage. In September and October of blueberry bushes attract the attention of a bright red color of the foliage.
Because blueberries grow well on poor, acidic, sandy soil, with regular watering, it may be an ornament of your alpine garden.
Will look fine blueberry plantings in the group with conifers: spherical and column thuja, juniper, cypress, with rhododendrons, as well as on lawns in a group of several varieties of blueberry bushes of varying height.
Because, if you want to plant blueberries in a tall, you do not have to allocate space for it on the site of berry plants. To do this, you can pick up a well-lit place or on the lawn near the house and planted it as an ornamental shrub. In this case you will not only solve the problem of landscaping the site, but can get delicious and useful berry.
If your site has a small pond, then it is possible to land bank the bushes of heather plants of varying shapes and sizes: large-fruited cranberry, cranberries, blueberries, Heather, Eric, etc. You can also make the site cranberry plants and heather garden, to create an original composition, add to heather boxwood, rhododendrons, and several species of conifers and ornamental perennials and annuals. You can use the blueberry bushes as underbrush or ground cover under the canopy of high conifers (pine, spruce, etc.).
When planting blueberries in containers need to make sure that they are sufficient. The tank should not be deep (40-50 cm), but wide enough (70-80 cm or more), with holes for drainage. Container filled with peat-sand mixture and planted it in a bush blueberry. Surface mulching with filings. Regularly watered while avoiding drying or moistening earthen clod. In winter, shelter capacity by any available materials to protect the root system from freezing. In snowless winters it is desirable to cover the entire bush spanbond to prevent freezing of shoots.